Our original investigations during the invention of the Rothman Index were based on the associations between various in-hospital patients’ clinical measurements and the risks of mortality one year after discharge.  We discovered that there was an increased risk of mortality associated with values of certain laboratory tests that were considered “normal” by the usual reference levels.  This led us to further testing and proposal of a new methodology for determining reference levels based on clinical risks rather than population norms as has been the case.  Abstracts include “A New Theory for Reference Intervals and Analyte Test Reporting based on Clinical Risks derived from Readily- Available EMR Data” which was recognized as a “Best Abstract in the Informatics Division of the American Association of Clinical Chemistry” and “High” Normal” Potassium Poses Mortality Risk for All Patients”. Four papers are currently in process.